Bleiletter K

Typography and Unicode

European languages and countries

Kaese-Logo

This page lists all main European languages. For the purposes of this website, main European languages are defined as all offical languages of the European countries. Official languages typically have a nation-wide legal status. In addition to the official languages, other regional and minority languages exist.






Offical languages of Europe

Latin-based alphabet
azAzerbaijaniAserbaidschanischAzərbaycanca🇦🇿AZ
bsBosnianBosnischBosanski🇧🇦BA
caCatalanKatalanischCatalà🇦🇩AD
cnrMontenegrinMontenegrinischCrnogorski/​Црногорски🇲🇪ME
csCzechTschechischČeština🇪🇺🇨🇿CZ
daDanishDänischDansk🇪🇺🇩🇰DK
deGermanDeutschDeutsch🇪🇺🇦🇹 🇧🇪 🇨🇭 🇩🇪 🇱🇮 🇱🇺AT, BE, CH, DE, LI, LU
enEnglishEnglischEnglish🇪🇺🇬🇧 🇮🇪 🇲🇹GB, IE, MT
esSpanishSpanischEspañol🇪🇺🇪🇸ES
etEstonianEstnischEesti🇪🇺🇪🇪EE
fiFinnishFinnischSuomi🇪🇺🇫🇮FI
frFrenchFranzösischFrançais🇪🇺🇧🇪 🇨🇭 🇲🇨 🇫🇷 🇱🇺BE, CH, MC, FR, LU
gaIrishIrischGaeilge🇪🇺🇮🇪IE
hrCroatianKroatischHrvatski🇪🇺🇧🇦 🇭🇷BA, HR
huHungarianUngarischMagyar🇪🇺🇭🇺HU
isIcelandicIsländischÍslenska🇮🇸IS
itItalianItalienischItaliano🇪🇺🇨🇭 🇮🇹 🇸🇲 🇻🇦CH, IT, SM, VA
kkKazakhKasachischQazaqsha(?)/​Қазақша🇰🇿KZ
laLatinLateinLatina🇻🇦VA
lbLuxembourgishLuxemburgischLëtzebuergesch🇱🇺LU
ltLithuanianLitauischLietuvių🇪🇺🇱🇹LZ
lvLatvianLettischLatviešu🇪🇺🇱🇻LV
mtMalteseMaltesischMalti🇪🇺🇲🇹MZ
nlDutchNiederländischNederlands🇪🇺🇧🇪 🇳🇱BE, NL
noNorwegianNorwegischNorsk🇳🇴NO
plPolishPolnischPolski🇪🇺🇵🇱PL
ptPortuguesePortugiesischPortuguês🇪🇺🇵🇹PT
rmRomanshRätoromanischRumantsch🇨🇭CH
roRomanian/​MoldovanRumänisch/​MoldauischRomână🇪🇺🇲🇩 🇷🇴MD, RO
seSámiSamischDavvisámegiella🇳🇴NO
skSlovakSlowakischSlovenčina🇪🇺🇸🇰SK
slSloveneSlowenischSlovenščina🇪🇺🇸🇮SI
sqAlbanianAlbanischShqip🇦🇱 🇲🇰AL, MK
svSwedishSchwedischSvenska🇪🇺🇫🇮 🇸🇪FI, SE
trTurkishTürkischTürkçe🇨🇾 🇹🇷CY, TR
Cyrillic alphabet
beBelarusianWeißrussischБеларуская🇧🇾BY
bgBulgarianBulgarischБългарски🇪🇺🇧🇬BG
mkMacedonianMazedonischМакедонски🇲🇰MK
ruRussianRussischРусский🇧🇾 🇰🇿 🇷🇺BY, KZ, RU
srSerbianSerbischСрпски/​Srpski🇧🇦 🇷🇸BA, RS
ukUkrainianUkrainischУкраїнська🇺🇦UA
Greek alphabet
elGreekGriechischΕλληνικά🇪🇺🇨🇾 🇬🇷CY, GR
Armenian alphabet
hyArmenianArmenischՀայերեն🇦🇲AM
Georgian alphabet
kaGeorgianGeorgischქართული🇬🇪GE

The codes used in the table are the official ISO country codes (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) and language codes (ISO 639-1). For an explanation of the country codes, please see country table below.

The table lists 44 languages, 24 of which are official European Union languages.

Comments

Three of the languages above are routinely written in more than script.

List of European alphabets

This section is work in progress

Latn Latin Lateinisch 36 Cyrl Cyrillic Kyrillisch 7 Grek Greek Griechisch 1 Armn Armenian Armenisch 1 Geor Georgian Georgisch 1 Serbian and Montenegrin are counted twice (Latin/Cyrillic), Kazakh is included in the Latin count.

List of all European countries

Coun­try
code
FlagEU
mem­ber
CountryLandLan­gua­ge
code(-s)
Official
language(-s)
Amtssprache(-n)
AD🇦🇩AndorraAndorracaCatalanKatalanisch
AL🇦🇱AlbaniaAlbaniensqAlbanianAlbanisch
AM🇦🇲ArmeniaArmenienhyArmenianArmenisch
AT🇦🇹🇪🇺AustriaÖsterreichdeGermanDeutsch
AZ🇦🇿AzerbaijanAserbaidschanazAzerbaijaniAserbaidschanisch
BA🇧🇦Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnien und Herzegowinabs, sr, hrBosnian, Serbian, CroatianBosnisch, Serbisch, Kroatisch
BE🇧🇪🇪🇺BelgiumBelgiennl, fr, deDutch, French, GermanNiederländisch, Französisch, Deutsch
BG🇧🇬🇪🇺BulgariaBulgarienbgBulgarianBulgarisch
BY🇧🇾BelarusWeißrusslandbe, ruBelarusian, RussianWeißrussisch, Russisch
CH🇨🇭SwitzerlandSchweizde, fr, it, rmGerman, French, Italian, RomanshDeutsch, Französisch, Italienisch, Rätoromanisch
CY🇨🇾🇪🇺CyprusZypernel, trGreek, TurkishGriechisch, Türkisch
CZ🇨🇿🇪🇺CzechiaTschechiencsCzechTschechisch
DE🇩🇪🇪🇺GermanyDeutschlanddeGermanDeutsch
DK🇩🇰🇪🇺DenmarkDänemarkdaDanishDänisch
EE🇪🇪🇪🇺EstoniaEstlandetEstonianEstnisch
ES🇪🇸🇪🇺SpainSpanienesSpanishSpanisch
FI🇫🇮🇪🇺FinlandFinnlandfi, svFinnish, SwedishFinnisch, Schwedisch
FR🇫🇷🇪🇺FranceFrankreichfrFrenchFranzösisch
GB🇬🇧United KingdomGroßbritannienenEnglishEnglisch
GE🇬🇪GeorgiaGeorgienkaGeorgianGeorgisch
GR🇬🇷🇪🇺GreeceGriechenlandelGreekGriechisch
HR🇭🇷🇪🇺CroatiaKroatienhrCroatianKroatisch
HU🇭🇺🇪🇺HungaryUngarnhuHungarianUngarisch
IE🇮🇪🇪🇺IrelandIrlandga, enIrish, EnglishIrisch, Englisch
IS🇮🇸IcelandIslandisIcelandicIsländisch
IT🇮🇹🇪🇺ItalyItalienitItalianItalienisch
KZ🇰🇿KazakhstanKasachstankk, ruKazakh, RussianKasachisch, Russisch
LI🇱🇮LiechtensteinLiechtensteindeGermanDeutsch
LT🇱🇹🇪🇺LithuaniaLitauenltLithuanianLitauisch
LU🇱🇺🇪🇺LuxembourgLuxemburglb, fr, deLuxembourgish, French, GermanLuxemburgisch, Französisch, Deutsch
LV🇱🇻🇪🇺LatviaLettlandlvLatvianLettisch
MC🇲🇨MonacoMonacofrFrenchFranzösisch
MD🇲🇩MoldovaMoldawienroRomanian/​MoldovanRumänisch/​Moldauisch
ME🇲🇪MontenegroMontenegroMontenegrinMontenegrinisch
MK🇲🇰North MacedoniaNordmazedonienmk, sqMacedonian, AlbanianMazedonisch, Albanisch
MT🇲🇹🇪🇺MaltaMaltamt, enMaltese, EnglishMaltesisch, Englisch
NL🇳🇱🇪🇺NetherlandsNiederlandenlDutchNiederländisch
NO🇳🇴NorwayNorwegenno, seNorwegian, SámiNorwegisch, Samisch
PL🇵🇱🇪🇺PolandPolenplPolishPolnisch
PT🇵🇹🇪🇺PortugalPortugalptPortuguesePortugiesisch
RO🇷🇴🇪🇺RomaniaRumänienroRomanianRumänisch
RS🇷🇸SerbiaSerbiensrSerbianSerbisch
RU🇷🇺RussiaRusslandruRussianRussisch
SE🇸🇪🇪🇺SwedenSchwedensvSwedishSchwedisch
SI🇸🇮🇪🇺SloveniaSlowenienslSloveneSlowenisch
SK🇸🇰🇪🇺SlovakiaSlowakeiskSlovakSlowakisch
SM🇸🇲San MarinoSan MarinoitItalianItalienisch
TR🇹🇷TurkeyTürkeitrTurkishTürkisch
UA🇺🇦UkraineUkraineukUkrainianUkrainisch
VA🇻🇦Vatican CityVatikanit, laItalian, LatinItalienisch, Latein

The codes used in the table are the official ISO country codes (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) and language codes (ISO 639-1).

The table lists 50 countries, 27 of which are members of the European Union.

Comments on countries listed in the table above

The above table is pretty comprehensive; it also includes countries that have only part of their landmass in Europe or are even geographically outside of Europe, but are considered culturally associated.
Geographically, Europe is considered the westernmost part of the Eurasian continent, separated from Asia by the ridges of the Ural mountains, the Ural river, the Caspian Sea, the ridges of the Caucasus mountains, the Black Sea, the Bosporus and the Aegean See.

Countries with their main landmass stretching two continents (Europe and Asia):

Countries that are geographically close to Europe and culturally associated:

Not fully formally recognised countries

In addition to the formally recognised countries in the table above, six regions in Europe have declared independence and statehood.

Coun­try
code
FlagEU
mem­ber
CountryLandLan­gua­ge
code(-s)
Official
language(-s)
Amtssprache(-n)
🇽🇰KosovoKosovosq, srAlbanian, SerbianAlbanisch, Serbisch
North CyprusNordzyperntrTurkishTürkisch
TransnistriaTransnistrienru, ro, ukRussian, Romanian/​Moldovan, UkrainianRussisch, Rumänisch/​Moldauisch, Ukrainisch
ArtsakhArzachhyArmenianArmenisch
South OssetiaSüdossetienos, ru, kaOssetian, Russian, GeorgianOssetisch, Russisch, Georgisch
AbkhaziaAbchasienab, ruAbkhaz, RussianAbchasisch, Russisch

The codes used in the table are the official ISO country codes (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) and language codes (ISO 639-1).

Of the six disputed regions above, only South Ossetian (Ossetian, os) and Abkhazia (Ankhaz, ab) would add new official languages to the current 44 official languages of Europe.


Countries that are geographically close to Europe and culturally associated:

Side note on the not fully recognised countries:

Notes on ISO codes for countries, languages and scripts

Countries

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) keeps a list of country codes. The standard, called ISO 3166, contains several parts, of which ISO 3166-1 is the main part, providing the actual country codes. The other two parts, (ISO 3166-1 and ISO 3166-3) deal with codes for country subdivisions, and formerly used names of countries.

ISO 3166-1 defines three codes for each country, a two-letter code (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2), a three letter code (ISO 3166-1 alpha-3) and a numeric code (ISO 3166-1 numeric). The most widely used set of codes are the two-letter codes, as shown in the tables on this web page.

With the worldwide spread of the Internet, increased standardisation of data processing and rise of globalisation, the ISO two-letter country codes have become more and more widely used. They are the basis for many other standards, for example country code top-level Internet domains or Unicode country flag emojis.
Unfortunately, some organisations have yet not fully adapted to this worldwide and simple standard, adding to complexity and misunderstandings by using slightly or entirely different codes, be it for historical reasons, inflexibility or simply ignorance and arrogance. Examples are country codes within sports organsisations, such as the International Olympic Committee, International Federation of Association Football, Union of European Football Association, or even the United Nations with their quaint vehicle codes. Hopefully, the future will see even further standardisation here to continue making our lives easier.

Languages

Similar to the list of country codes, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) maintains codes for languages. The standard, called ISO 639, also contains several parts. Individual languages are listed in ISO 639-1, ISO 639-2 and ISO 693-3, whereas ISO 639-5 lists language families and groups. ISO 639-1, also called alpha-2 code, lists the most widely used two-letter languages codes as shown in the tables on this web page. However, two-letter codes using the 26 letter of the basic Latin alphabet are restricted to only 676 entries, and that’s why three-letter codes are also necessary.

Scripts