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Evolution of the alphabet

This family tree of alphabets shows the development of the Latin alphabet from its earliest beginnings.

Egyptian hieroglyphs 𓃾 𓉐 𓌙 𓉿 𓀠 𓌉 𓍿 𓉗 𓎛 𓄤 𓂝 𓂧 𓋿 𓈖 𓆓 𓊽 𓁹 𓂋 𓎤 𓎗 𓁶 𓐮 𓏴
Phoenician 𐤀 𐤁 𐤂 𐤃 𐤄 𐤅 𐤆 𐤇 𐤈 𐤉 𐤊 𐤋 𐤌 𐤍 𐤎 𐤏 𐤐 𐤑 𐤒 𐤓 𐤔 𐤕
Greek Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ϝ Υ Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Χ Ο Ω Π Ϻ Ͳ Ϙ Φ Ψ Ρ Σ Τ
Old Italic 𐌀 𐌁 𐌂 𐌃 𐌄 𐌅 𐌖 𐌆 𐌇 𐌈 𐌉 𐌊 𐌋 𐌌 𐌍 𐌎 𐌗 𐌏 𐌐 𐌑 𐌒 𐌘 𐌙 𐌓 𐌔 𐌕 𐌚
Latin A B C G D E F V Y U W Z H I J K L M N X O P Q R S T

The intermediate scripts (Wadi el-Hol inscriptions, Proto-Sinaitic script, Proto-Canaanite script) between Egyptian hieroglyphs and Phoenician are not included in Unicode and not listed here.

A more detailed, commented version of the information on this page is available here: Evolution of the alphabet (with comments).

Alphabet evolution table

Unicode Unicode Unicode Unicode Unicode
Symbol Code
Name Symbol Code
Name Symbol Code
Name Symbol Code
Name Symbol Code
Egyptian hieroglyphs (Egyp) Phoenician (Phnx) Greek (Grek) Old Italic (Ital) Latin (Latn)
𓃾 130FE Egyptian hieroglyph F001 𐤀 10900 Phoenician letter alf Α 0391 Greek capital letter alpha 𐌀 10300 Old Italic letter a A 0041 Latin capital letter A
𓉐 13250 Egyptian hieroglyph O001 𐤁 10901 Phoenician letter bet Β 0392 Greek capital letter beta 𐌁 10301 Old Italic letter be B 0042 Latin capital letter B
𓌙 13319 Egyptian hieroglyph T014 𐤂 10902 Phoenician letter gaml Γ 0393 Greek capital letter gamma 𐌂 10302 Old Italic letter ke C 0043 Latin capital letter C
G 0047 Latin capital letter G
𓉿 1327F Egyptian hieroglyph O031 𐤃 10903 Phoenician letter delt Δ 0394 Greek capital letter delta 𐌃 10303 Old Italic letter de D 0044 Latin capital letter D
𓀠 13020 Egyptian hieroglyph A028 𐤄 10904 Phoenician letter he Ε 0395 Greek capital letter epsilon 𐌄 10304 Old Italic letter e E 0045 Latin capital letter E
𓌉 13309 Egyptian hieroglyph T003 𐤅 10905 Phoenician letter wau Ϝ 03DC Greek letter digamma 𐌅 10305 Old Italic letter ve F 0046 Latin capital letter F
Υ 03A5 Greek capital letter upsilon 𐌖 10316 Old Italic letter u V 0056 Latin capital letter V
Y 0059 Latin capital letter Y
U 0055 Latin capital letter U
W 0057 Latin capital letter W
𓍿 1337F Egyptian hieroglyph V013 𐤆 10906 Phoenician letter zai Ζ 0396 Greek capital letter zeta 𐌆 10306 Old Italic letter ze Z 005A Latin capital letter Z
𓉗 13257 Egyptian hieroglyph O006 𐤇 10907 Phoenician letter het Η 0397 Greek capital letter eta 𐌇 10307 Old Italic letter he H 0048 Latin capital letter H
𓎛 1339B Egyptian hieroglyph V028
𓄤 13124 Egyptian hieroglyph F035 𐤈 10908 Phoenician letter tet Θ 0398 Greek capital letter theta 𐌈 10308 Old Italic letter the
𓂝 1309D Egyptian hieroglyph D036 𐤉 10909 Phoenician letter yod Ι 0399 Greek capital letter iota 𐌉 10309 Old Italic letter i I 0049 Latin capital letter I
J 004A Latin capital letter J
𓂧 130A7 Egyptian hieroglyph D046 𐤊 1090A Phoenician letter kaf Κ 039A Greek capital letter kappa 𐌊 1030A Old Italic letter ka K 004B Latin capital letter K
𓋿 132FF Egyptian hieroglyph S039 𐤋 1090B Phoenician letter lamd Λ 039B Greek capital letter lambda 𐌋 1030B Old Italic letter el L 004C Latin capital letter L
𓈖 13216 Egyptian hieroglyph N035 𐤌 1090C Phoenician letter mem Μ 039C Greek capital letter mu 𐌌 1030C Old Italic letter em M 004D Latin capital letter M
𓆓 13193 Egyptian hieroglyph I010 𐤍 1090D Phoenician letter nun Ν 039D Greek capital letter nu 𐌍 1030D Old Italic letter en N 004E Latin capital letter N
𓊽 132BD Egyptian hieroglyph R011 𐤎 1090E Phoenician letter semk Ξ 039E Greek capital letter xi 𐌎 1030E Old Italic letter esh
Χ 03A7 Greek capital letter chi 𐌗 10317 Old Italic letter eks X 0058 Latin capital letter X
𓁹 13079 Egyptian hieroglyph D004 𐤏 1090F Phoenician letter ain Ο 039F Greek capital letter omicron 𐌏 1030F Old Italic letter o O 004F Latin capital letter O
Ω 03A9 Greek capital letter omega
𓂋 1308B Egyptian hieroglyph D021 𐤐 10910 Phoenician letter pe Π 03A0 Greek capital letter pi 𐌐 10310 Old Italic letter pe P 0050 Latin capital letter P
𓎤 133A4 Egyptian hieroglyph V033 𐤑 10911 Phoenician letter sade Ϻ 03FA Greek capital letter san 𐌑 10311 Old Italic letter she
Ͳ 0372 Greek capital letter archaic sampi
𓎗 13397 Egyptian hieroglyph V024 𐤒 10912 Phoenician letter qof Ϙ˜ 03D8 Greek capital letter archaic koppa 𐌒 10312 Old Italic letter ku Q 0051 Latin capital letter Q
Φ 03A6 Greek capital letter phi 𐌘 10318 Old Italic letter phe
Ψ 03A8 Greek capital letter psi 𐌙 10319 Old Italic letter khe
𓁶 13076 Egyptian hieroglyph D001 𐤓 10913 Phoenician letter rosh Ρ 03A1 Greek capital letter rho 𐌓 10313 Old Italic letter er R 0052 Latin capital letter R
𓐮 1342E Egyptian hieroglyph AA032 𐤔 10914 Phoenician letter shin Σ 03A3 Greek capital letter sigma 𐌔 10314 Old Italic letter es S 0053 Latin capital letter S
𓏴 133F4 Egyptian hieroglyph Z009 𐤕 10915 Phoenician letter tau Τ 03A4 Greek capital letter tau 𐌕 10315 Old Italic letter te T 0054 Latin capital letter T
𐌚 1031A Old Italic letter ef

A more detailed, commented version of the information on this page is available here: Evolution of the alphabet (with comments).

The information on this page is largely based on the works of William Albright, Brian Edric Colless, Alan Gardiner, Orly Goldwasser, Harald Haarmann, Gordon J. Hamilton and Theodor Nöldeke.